Tag Archives: hyperaware

A Fair price to pay: exploiting causal graphs for fairness in insurance

Our paper, a fair price to pay: exploiting causal graphs for fairness in insurance, writen with Olivier Côté and Marie-Pier Côté is now available,  on SSRN

In many jurisdictions, insurance companies must not discriminate on some given policyholder characteristics. Omission of prohibited variables from models prevents direct discrimination, but fails to address proxy discrimination, a phenomenon especially prevalent when powerful predictive algorithms are fed with an abundance of acceptable covariates. The lack of formal definition for key fairness concepts, in particular indirect discrimination, hinders the fairness assessment of methodologies. We review causal inference notions and introduce a causal graph tailored for fairness in insurance. Exploiting these, we discuss potential sources of bias, formally define direct and indirect discrimination, and study the properties of fairness methodologies. A novel categorization of fair methodologies into five families (best-estimate, unaware, aware, hyperaware, and corrective) is constructed based on their expected fairness properties. A comprehensive pedagogical example illustrates the practical implications of our findings: the interplay between our fair score families, group fairness criteria, and sources of discrimination.