Tag Archives: goodness of fit

Applications of Chi-Square Tests

This morning, in our mathematical statistical class, we’ve seen the use of the chi-square test. The first one was related to some goodness of fit of a multinomial distribution. Assume that . In order to test  against , use the statistic

Under . For instance, we have the number of weddings, in a large city, per season,

> n=c(301,356,413,262)

We want to test if weddings are celebrated uniformely over the year, i.e. .

> np=rep(sum(n)/4,4)
> cbind(n,np)
       n  np
[1,] 301 333
[2,] 356 333
[3,] 413 333
[4,] 262 333
> Q=sum( (n-np)^2/np  )
> Q
[1] 39.02102

This quantity should be compared with the quantile of the chi-square distribution

> qchisq(.95,df=4-1)
[1] 7.814728

but it is also possible to compute the p-value,

> 1-pchisq(Q,df=4-1)
[1] 1.717959e-08

Here, we reject the assumption that weddings are celebrated uniformly over the year.

Continue reading Applications of Chi-Square Tests

Kendall’s function for copulas

As mentioned in the course on copulas, a nice tool to describe dependence it Kendall’s cumulative function. Given a random pair http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/conc-19.gif with distribution  http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/conc-17.gif, define random variable http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/conc-30.gif. Then Kendall’s cumulative function is


Genest and Rivest (1993) introduced that function to choose among Archimedean copulas (we’ll get back to this point below).

From a computational point of view, computing such a function can be done as follows,

  • for all http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kendall-02.gif, compute http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kendall-03.gif as the proportion of observation in the lower quadrant, with upper corner http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kendall-4.gif, i.e.


  • then compute the cumulative distribution function of http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kendall-03.gif‘s.

To visualize the construction of that cumulative distribution function, consider the following animation

Thus, here the code to compute simply that cumulative distribution function is


The graph can be obtain either using




The interesting point is that for an Archimedean copula with generator http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kendall-7.gif, then Kendall’s function is simply

http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kendall-8.gifIf we’re too lazy to do the maths, at least, it is possible to compute those functions numerically. For instance, for Clayton copula,


Similarly, let us consider Gumbel copula,


If we plot the empirical Kendall’s function (obtained from the sample), with different theoretical ones, derived from Clayton copulas (on the left, in blue) or Gumbel copula (on the right, in purple), we have the following,


Note that the different curves were obtained when Clayton copula has Kendall’s tau equal to 0, .1, .2, .3, …, .9, 1, and similarly for Gumbel copula (so that Figures can be compared). The following table gives a correspondence, from Kendall’s tau to the underlying parameter of a copula (for different families)

as well as Spearman’s rho,

To conclude, observe that there are two important particular cases that can be identified here: the case of perfect dependent, on the first diagonal when http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kennnn-04.gif, and the case of independence, the upper green curve, http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2016/10/kennnnn-05.gif. It should also be mentioned that it is also common to plot not function http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kennnn-01.gif, but function http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kennnn-02.gif, defined as http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/files/2015/12/kennnn-03.gif,