# Estimer la surmortalité

Ce matin, Baptiste Coulmont m’envoyait un tweet avec un joli graphique, présentant le nombre quotidien de décès en France. Comme les données sont en ligne, je me suis dit que je pourrais jouer un peu avec. Pour les plus curieux, on a la liste de tous les décès depuis… longtemps ! (on a plus de 25 millions de décès). La seule chose qui nous intéresse, c’est la date, alors on la récupère. Puis on compte, par jour, combien de décès on a eu,

D = read.csv("insee_deces.csv",header=TRUE) Vecteur_Dates = as.character(D[,8]) TV = table(Vecteur_Dates) B = data.frame(dateC=names(TV),nb=as.numeric(TV)) B$date=as.Date(B$dateC,"%Y-%m-%d") B$year = format(B$date,"%Y") B$month = format(B$date,"%m") B$day = format(B$date,"%d") B$deb=as.Date(paste(B$year,"01-01",sep="-"),"%Y-%m-%d") B$fin=as.Date(paste(B$year,"12-31",sep="-"),"%Y-%m-%d") B$dif=as.numeric(B$date-B$deb)/as.numeric(B$fin-B$deb) Je crée ici une une variable qui me dit où je suis dans l’année en cours (0 pour le 1er janvier, et 1 pour pour 31 décembre). Ça me permet de contourner un petit problème technique : les années bissextiles. On peut ensuite représenter toutes les années, plot(B2$dif[B2$year == "2020"],B2$NormCpte[B2$year == "2020"],type="l",xlim=0:1,ylim=c(1200,4000),col="white") for(i in as.character(2000:2019)) lines(B2$dif[B2$year == i],B2$NormCpte[B2$year == i],col="light blue") On veut ensuite avoir la tendance moyenne. Baptiste prenait la moyenne par jour (la courbe noire). Ici, on va lisser avec des splines library(gam) reg = gam(NormCpte~bs(dif,40),data=B2[B2$year != "2020",]) vx = seq(0,1,length=501) vy = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(dif=vx)) lines(vx,vy,col="blue",lwd=3) ce qui donne la courbe bleue. C’est l’écart à cette courbe qui donne la surmortalité. Par exemple (prenons un exemple bien connu, et largement visible sur le graphique précédant) l’année 2003, et les quinze premiers jours d’août, correspondant (plus ou moins) à la période de canicule.

i = 2003 x = B2$dif[(B2$year == i)&amp;((B2$month == "08"))&amp;(B2$day %in% c(paste("0",1:9,sep=""),10:15))] y = B2$NormCpte[(B2$year == i)&amp;((B2$month == "08"))&amp;(B2$day %in% c(paste("0",1:9,sep=""),10:15))] yp = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(dif=x)) e = y-yp sum(e)  14294.39

Plusieurs chiffres sont mentionnés sur wikipédia, dont le rapport de l’INSERM qui annonçait 14,802 morts. On n’est pas trop loin… On peut visualiser cette surmortalité sur le graphique ci-dessous

plot(B2$dif[B2$year == "2020"],B2$NormCpte[B2$year == "2020"],type="l",col="white",xlim=0:1,ylim=c(1200,4000)) for(i in as.character(2000:2019)) lines(B2$dif[B2$year == i],B2$NormCpte[B2$year == i],col="light blue") lines(vx,vy,col="blue") lines(B2$dif[B2$year == 2003],B2$NormCpte[B2$year == 2003],col="red") for(u in 1:length(x)) segments(x[u],y[u],x[u],yp[u],lwd=3,col="red") Prenons un autre exemple qu’on voit bien sur le graphique de Baptiste, la grippe de 2017 (dite de 2016-2017). Si on prend les 45 premiers jours de 2017, on obtient les chiffres suivants

i = 2017 x=B2$dif[(B2$year == i)&amp;((B2$month == "01")| ((B2$month == "02")&amp;(B2$day %in% c(paste("0",1:9,sep=""),10:15))))] y=B2$NormCpte[(B2$year == i)&amp;((B2$month == "01")| ((B2$month == "02")&amp;(B2$day %in% c(paste("0",1:9,sep=""),10:15))))] yp=predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(dif=x)) yp = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(dif=x)) e = y-yp sum(e)  21177.33 Le rapport de Santé Publique France parle de 21,200 décès (pour la “surmortalité toute cause”) ce qui est là aussi comparable…

Maintenant, avant de conclure, et avant de me faire troller pendant quelques jours, je tiens à préciser que c’est juste un exercice de modélisation, et oui, j’ai exclu 2020. Je ne tiens pas à faire de comparaison avec la Covid-19, à qui 21,000 morts sont attribués, en France, ce soir. Si l’ordre de grandeur est le même, qu’on en me fasse pas dire qu’on est dans une situation comparable, et que la Covid-19 est finalement une simple grippe. Je ne me prononcerais pas sur ce point car je ne suis pas virologue. Mais surtout, on a 21,000 morts malgré des mesures incroyables de confinement. Je reviendrais probablement dans les jours qui viennent sur l’impact du contrôle par confinement, mais l’objet du court billet de ce soir était de voir comment on pouvait rapidement quantifier une surmortalité.

• petite note technique : pour les 3 graphiques (mais pas pour les codes et les calculs) j’avais initialement normalisé les données. En effet, la population française a relativement pas mal changé en 20 ans, augmentant de 10%… Aussi, 1000 morts en 2003, ça n’est pas autant (relativement à la taille de la population) qu’en 2020.

# STT5100, quiz (régression de Poisson #1)

Pour la fin de la semaine, j’avais donné un petit quiz, basé sur la base suivante, qui donne le nombre de cyclistes à une intersection, à New York City,

download.file("http://freakonometrics.free.fr/NYCVelo.RData","velo.RData") load("velo.RData") str(base) 'data.frame': 214 obs. of 7 variables: $Date : chr "1-Apr-17" "2-Apr-17" "3-Apr-17" "4-Apr-17" ...$ HIGH_T : num 46 62.1 63 51.1 63 48.9 48 55.9 66 73.9 ... $LOW_T : num 37 41 50 46 46 41 43 39.9 45 55 ...$ PRECIP : num 0 0 0.03 1.18 0 0.73 0.01 0 0 0 ... $BB_COUNT: int 606 2021 2470 723 2807 461 1222 1674 2375 3324 ...$ DAY : chr "Sam" "Dim" "Lun" "Mar" ... $DIFF_T : num 9 21.1 13 5.1 17 7.9 5 16 21 18.9 ...... En utiisant une régression de Poisson, il fallait prédire combien de cyclistes passeront un dimanche, s’il fait une température maximale de 85F, minimale de 70F, et s’il ne pleut pas. Et il fallait voir ce que donnerait la prévision pour un lundi. newbase = data.frame(DAY=as.factor(c("Lun","Dim")), HIGH_T=c(85,85),LOW_T=c(70,70), PRECIP=c(0,0)) Faisons un modèle avec toutes les variables explicatives. reg0 = glm(BB_COUNT~HIGH_T+LOW_T+PRECIP+DAY,data=base,family=poisson) Rajoutons aussi une indicatrice pour indiquer les jours où il ne pleut pas, reg = glm(BB_COUNT~HIGH_T+LOW_T+PRECIP+I(PRECIP==0)+DAY,data=base,family=poisson) summary(reg) Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(&gt;|z|) (Intercept) 6.8844970 0.0110463 623.241 &lt;2e-16 *** HIGH_T 0.0210950 0.0003133 67.328 &lt;2e-16 *** LOW_T -0.0114006 0.0003351 -34.024 &lt;2e-16 *** PRECIP -0.6570450 0.0071899 -91.384 &lt;2e-16 *** I(PRECIP == 0)TRUE 0.1303908 0.0033283 39.176 &lt;2e-16 *** DAYJeu 0.1683475 0.0049690 33.880 &lt;2e-16 *** DAYLun 0.1144129 0.0050480 22.665 &lt;2e-16 *** DAYMar 0.1655886 0.0049936 33.160 &lt;2e-16 *** DAYMer 0.1688035 0.0049190 34.317 &lt;2e-16 *** DAYSam 0.0466447 0.0051838 8.998 &lt;2e-16 *** DAYVen 0.1003536 0.0050919 19.709 &lt;2e-16 *** --- Signif. codes: 0 ‘***’ 0.001 ‘**’ 0.01 ‘*’ 0.05 ‘.’ 0.1 ‘ ’ 1 (Dispersion parameter for poisson family taken to be 1) Null deviance: 70021 on 213 degrees of freedom Residual deviance: 26493 on 203 degrees of freedom AIC: 28580 Number of Fisher Scoring iterations: 4 Tout semble vraiment significatif. Et même avoir du sens (si on regarde les signes, par exemple). Et si on a peur de rater un effet non-linéaire, on peut mettre des splines sur toutes les variables continues library(gam) reggam = gam(BB_COUNT~bs(HIGH_T)+bs(LOW_T)+bs(PRECIP)+I(PRECIP==0)+DAY,data=base,family=poisson) plot(reggam, se=TRUE) pour la température maximale, ou pour la température minimale et la courbe suivante pour la précipitation, avec un lissage linéaire entre l’observation maximale (3) et celle juste avant (vers 1.8) On peut aussi régresser sur la température minimale, et l’écart entre le maximum et le minimum (dans un modèle linéaire les modèles sont équivalents, mais avec de transformation nonlinéaire, la différence pourrait donner un modèle plus simple) library(gam) reggam2 = gam(BB_COUNT~bs(DIFF_T)+bs(LOW_T)+bs(PRECIP)+I(PRECIP==0)+DAY,data=base,family=poisson) plot(reggam2, se=TRUE) On peut maintenant comparer les quatre modèles, et leurs prévision. Par exemple, pour le modèle linéaire (avec la variable indicatrice indiquant qu’il ne pleut pas), P = predict(reg,newdata=newbase,type="response",se.fit=TRUE) pour le lundi, on obtient l’intervalle de confiance à 95% pour $\widehat{\lambda}$ P$fit+c(-2,2)*P$se.fit  3349.842 3401.395 et pour le dimanche l’intervalle de confiance à 95% est P$fit+c(-2,2)*P$se.fit  2987.497 3033.861 On peut visualiser les quatre intervalles de confiance (avec, de haut en bas, le second modèle gam, le premier, le modèle linéaire avec l’indicatrice d’absence de pluie, puis le premier modèle linéaire) alors que pour le dimanche, on a Autrement dit, en changeant de modèle, on change beaucoup les intervalles de confiance sur la prévision (et les intervalles sont parfois complètement disjoints). Ce qui n’est pas forcément une bonne nouvelle. # Classification from scratch, logistic with splines 2/8 Today, second post of our series on classification from scratch, following the brief introduction on the logistic regression. ## Piecewise linear splines To illustrate what’s going on, let us start with a “simple” regression (with only one explanatory variable). The underlying idea is natura non facit saltus, for “nature does not make jumps”, i.e. process governing equations for natural things are continuous. That seems to be a rather strong assumption, because we can assume that there is a fixed threshold to explain death. For instance, if patients die (for sure) if the “stroke index” exceeds a threshold, we might expect some discontinuity. Exceept that if that threshold is an heterogeneous (non-observable continuous) variable, then we get back to the continuity assumption. The most simple model we can think of to extend the linear model we’ve seen in the previous post is to consider a piecewise linear function, with two parts : small values of $x$, and larger values of $x$. The most convenient way to do so is to use the positive part function $(x-s)_+$ which is the difference between $x$ and $s$ if that difference is positive, and $0$ otherwise. For instance $$\beta_1 x+\beta_2(x-s)_+$$ is the following piecewise linear function, continuous, with a “rupture” at knot $s$. Observe also the following interpretation: for small values of $x$, there is a linear increase, with slope $\beta_1$, and for lager values of $x$, there is a linear decrease, with slope $\beta_1+\beta_2$. Hence, $\beta_2$ is interpreted as a change of the slope. And of course, it is possible to consider more than one knot. The function to get the positive value is the following pos = function(x,s) (x-s)*(x&gt;=s) then we can use it direcly in our regression model reg = glm(PRONO~INSYS+pos(INSYS,15)+ pos(INSYS,25),data=myocarde,family=binomial) The output of the regression is here summary(reg) Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(&gt;|z|) (Intercept) -0.1109 3.2783 -0.034 0.9730 INSYS -0.1751 0.2526 -0.693 0.4883 pos(INSYS, 15) 0.7900 0.3745 2.109 0.0349 * pos(INSYS, 25) -0.5797 0.2903 -1.997 0.0458 * Hence, the original slope, for very small values is not significant, but then, above 15, it become significantly positive. And above 25, there is a significant change again. We can plot it to see what’s going on u = seq(5,55,length=201) v = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,type="l") points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) abline(v=c(5,15,25,55),lty=2) ## Using bs() linear splines Using the GAM function, things are slightly different. We will use here so called b-splines, library(splines) We can define spline functions with support $(5,55)$ and with knots $\{15,25\}$ clr6 = c("#1b9e77","#d95f02","#7570b3","#e7298a","#66a61e","#e6ab02") x = seq(0,60,by=.25) B = bs(x,knots=c(15,25),Boundary.knots=c(5,55),degre=1) matplot(x,B,type="l",lty=1,lwd=2,col=clr6) as we can see, the functions defined here are different from the one before, but we still have (piecewise) linear functions on each segment $(5,15)$, $(15,25)$ and $(25,55)$. But linear combinations of those functions (the two sets of functions) will generate the same space. Said differently, if the interpretation of the output will be different, predictions should be the same reg = glm(PRONO~bs(INSYS,knots=c(15,25), Boundary.knots=c(5,55),degre=1), data=myocarde,family=binomial) summary(reg) Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(&gt;|z|) (Intercept) -0.9863 2.0555 -0.480 0.6314 bs(INSYS,..)1 -1.7507 2.5262 -0.693 0.4883 bs(INSYS,..)2 4.3989 2.0619 2.133 0.0329 * bs(INSYS,..)3 5.4572 5.4146 1.008 0.3135 Observe that there are three coefficients, as before, but again, the interpretation is here more complicated… v=predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,ylim=0:1,type="l",col="red") points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) abline(v=c(5,15,25,55),lty=2) Nevertheless, the prediction is the same… and that’s nice. ## Piecewise quadratic splines Let us go one step further… Can we have also the continuity of the derivative ? Yes, and that’s easy actually, considering parabolic functions. Instead of using a decomposition on $x,(x-s_1)_+$ and $(x-s_2)_+$ consider now a decomposition on $x,x^{\color{red}{2}},(x-s_1)^{\color{red}{2}}_+$ and $(x-s_2)^{\color{red}{2}}_+$.  pos2 = function(x,s) (x-s)^2*(x&gt;=s) reg = glm(PRONO~poly(INSYS,2)+pos2(INSYS,15)+pos2(INSYS,25), data=myocarde,family=binomial) summary(reg) Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(&gt;|z|) (Intercept) 29.9842 15.2368 1.968 0.0491 * poly(INSYS, 2)1 408.7851 202.4194 2.019 0.0434 * poly(INSYS, 2)2 199.1628 101.5892 1.960 0.0499 * pos2(INSYS, 15) -0.2281 0.1264 -1.805 0.0712 . pos2(INSYS, 25) 0.0439 0.0805 0.545 0.5855 As expected, there are here five coefficients: the intercept and two for the part on the left (three parameters for the parabolic function), and then two additional terms for the part in the center – here $(15,25)$ – and for the part on the right. Of course, for each portion, there is only one degree of freedom since we have a parabolic function (three coefficients) but two constraints (continuity, and continuity of the first order derivative). On a graph, we get the following v = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,ylim=0:1,type="l",col="red",lwd=2,xlab="INSYS",ylab="") points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) abline(v=c(5,15,25,55),lty=2) ## Using bs() quadratic splines Of course, we can do the same with our R function. But as before, the basis of function is expressed here differently  x = seq(0,60,by=.25) B=bs(x,knots=c(15,25),Boundary.knots=c(5,55),degre=2) matplot(x,B,type="l",xlab="INSYS",col=clr6) If we run R code, we get reg = glm(PRONO~bs(INSYS,knots=c(15,25), Boundary.knots=c(5,55),degre=2),data=myocarde, family=binomial) summary(reg) Coefficients: Estimate Std. Error z value Pr(&gt;|z|) (Intercept) 7.186 5.261 1.366 0.1720 bs(INSYS, ..)1 -14.656 7.923 -1.850 0.0643 . bs(INSYS, ..)2 -5.692 4.638 -1.227 0.2198 bs(INSYS, ..)3 -2.454 8.780 -0.279 0.7799 bs(INSYS, ..)4 6.429 41.675 0.154 0.8774 But that’s not really a big deal since the prediction is exactly the same v = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,ylim=0:1,type="l",col="red") points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) abline(v=c(5,15,25,55),lty=2) ## Cubic splines Last, but not least, we can reach the cubic splines. With our previous notions, we would consider a decomposition on (guess what) $x,x^2,x^{\color{red}{3}},(x-s_1)^{\color{red}{3}}_+,(x-s_2)^{\color{red}{3}}_+$, to get this time continuity, as well as continuity of the first two derivatives (and to get a very smooth function, since even variations will be smooth). If we use the bs function, the basis is the followin B=bs(x,knots=c(15,25),Boundary.knots=c(5,55),degre=3) matplot(x,B,type="l",lwd=2,col=clr6,lty=1,ylim=c(-.2,1.2)) abline(v=c(5,15,25,55),lty=2) and the prediction will now be reg = glm(PRONO~bs(INSYS,knots=c(15,25), Boundary.knots=c(5,55),degre=3), data=myocarde,family=binomial) u = seq(5,55,length=201) v = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,ylim=0:1,type="l",col="red",lwd=2) points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) abline(v=c(5,15,25,55),lty=2) Two last things before concluding (for today), the location of the knots, and the extension to additive models. ## Location of knots In many applications, we do not want to specify the location of the knots. We just want – say – three (intermediary) knots. This can be done using reg = glm(PRONO~1+bs(INSYS,degree=1,df=4),data=myocarde,family=binomial) We can actually get the locations of the knots by looking at attr(reg$terms, "predvars")[] bs(INSYS, degree = 1L, knots = c(15.8, 21.4, 27.15), Boundary.knots = c(8.7, 54), intercept = FALSE)

which provides us with the location of the boundary knots (the minumun and the maximum from from our sample) but also the three intermediary knots. Observe that actually, those five values are just (empirical) quantiles

quantile(myocarde$INSYS,(0:4)/4) 0% 25% 50% 75% 100% 8.70 15.80 21.40 27.15 54.00 If we plot the prediction, we get v = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,ylim=0:1,type="l",col="red",lwd=2) points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) abline(v=quantile(myocarde$INSYS,(0:4)/4),lty=2) If we get back on what was computed before the logit transformation, we clealy see ruptures are the different quantiles

B = bs(x,degree=1,df=4) B = cbind(1,B) y = B%*%coefficients(reg) plot(x,y,type="l",col="red",lwd=2) abline(v=quantile(myocarde$INSYS,(0:4)/4),lty=2) Note that if we do specify anything about knots (number or location), we get no knots… reg = glm(PRONO~1+bs(INSYS,degree=2),data=myocarde,family=binomial) attr(reg$terms, "predvars")[] bs(INSYS, degree = 2L, knots = numeric(0), Boundary.knots = c(8.7,54), intercept = FALSE)

and if we look at the prediction

u = seq(5,55,length=201) v = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,ylim=0:1,type="l",col="red",lwd=2) points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) actually, it is the same as a quadratic regression (as expected actually)

reg = glm(PRONO~1+poly(INSYS,degree=2),data=myocarde,family=binomial) v = predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(INSYS=u),type="response") plot(u,v,ylim=0:1,type="l",col="red",lwd=2) points(myocarde$INSYS,myocarde$PRONO,pch=19) Consider now the second dataset, with two variables. Consider here a model like
$$\mathbb{P}[Y|X_1=x_1,X_2=x_2]=\frac{\exp[\eta(x_1,x_2)]}{1+\exp[\eta(x_1,x_2)]}$$
where
$$\exp[\eta(x_1,x_2)]=\beta_0+\color{red}{s_1(x_1)}+\color{blue}{s_2(x_2)}$$
$$\color{red}{s_1(x_1)}=\beta_{1,0}x_1+\beta_{1,1}(x_1-s_{11})_++\beta_{1,2}(x_1-s_{12})_+$$
and
$$\color{blue}{s_2(x_2)}=\beta_{2,0}x_2+\beta_{2,1}(x_2-s_{21})_++\beta_{2,2}(x_2-s_{22})_+$$
It might seem a little bit restrictive, but that’s actually the idea of additive models.

reg = glm(y~bs(x1,degree=1,df=3)+bs(x2,degree=1,df=3),data=df,family=binomial(link = "logit")) u = seq(0,1,length=101) p = function(x,y) predict.glm(reg,newdata=data.frame(x1=x,x2=y),type="response") v = outer(u,u,p) image(u,u,v,xlab="Variable 1",ylab="Variable 2",col=clr10,breaks=(0:10)/10) points(df$x1,df$x2,pch=19,cex=1.5,col="white") points(df$x1,df$x2,pch=c(1,19)[1+(df$y=="1")],cex=1.5) contour(u,u,v,levels = .5,add=TRUE) Now, if think about is, we’ve been able to get a “perfect” model, so, somehow, it seems no longer continuous… persp(u,u,v,theta=20,phi=40,col="green" Of course, it is… it is piecewise linear, with hyperplane, some being almost vertical. And one can also consider piecewise quadratic functions reg = glm(y~bs(x1,degree=2,df=3)+bs(x2,degree=2,df=3),data=df,family=binomial(link = "logit")) u = seq(0,1,length=101) p = function(x,y) predict.glm(reg,newdata=data.frame(x1=x,x2=y),type="response") v = outer(u,u,p) image(u,u,v,xlab="Variable 1",ylab="Variable 2",col=clr10,breaks=(0:10)/10) points(df$x1,df$x2,pch=19,cex=1.5,col="white") points(df$x1,df$x2,pch=c(1,19)[1+(df$y=="1")],cex=1.5) contour(u,u,v,levels = .5,add=TRUE) Funny thing, we now have two “perfect” models, with different areas for the white and the black dots… Don’t ask me how to choose on that one.

In R, it is possible to use the mgcv package to run a gam regression. It is used for generalized additive models, but here, we have only one variable, so it is difficult to see the “additive” part, actually. And to be more specific, mgcv is using penalized quasi-likelihood from the nlme package (but we’ll get back on penalized routines later on).

But maybe I should also mention another smoothing tool before, kernels (and maybe also $k$-nearest neighbors). To be continued I will give a short graduate course for PhD students, in Rennes, on Thurday mornings, in March (2nd, 9th, 23rd and 30th). The agenda will be

1. Nonlinear Regression Models and Smoothing Techniques

2. Bootstrapping and Regression

3. Penalized Regression Models and LASSO

4. Quantile Regression and Expectiles

There will be slides available by the end of February.

# Actuariat de l’Assurance Non-Vie #7

Pour le septième chapitre du cours d’actuariat de l’assurance non-vie à l’ENSAE, on abordera la modélisation des coûts individuels, aussi bien dommage que responsabilité civile.. Les slides sont en ligne (la version pdf téléchargeable est comme souvent plus complète que celle sur slideshare)

# Choosing a Classifier

In order to illustrate the problem of chosing a classification model consider some simulated data,

> n = 500
> set.seed(1)
> X = rnorm(n)
> ma = 10-(X+1.5)^2*2
> mb = -10+(X-1.5)^2*2
> M = cbind(ma,mb)
> set.seed(1)
> Z = sample(1:2,size=n,replace=TRUE)
> Y = ma*(Z==1)+mb*(Z==2)+rnorm(n)*5
> df = data.frame(Z=as.factor(Z),X,Y)

A first strategy is to split the dataset in two parts, a training dataset, and a testing dataset.

> df1 = training = df[1:300,]
> df2 = testing  = df[301:500,]
• The Holdout Method: Training and Testing Datasets

The two datasets can be visualised below, with the training dataset on top, and the testing dataset below

> plot(df1$X,df1$Y,pch=19,col=c(rgb(1,0,0,.4),
+ rgb(0,0,1,.4))[df1\$Z]) # On Some Alternatives to Regression Models

When you start discussing with people in machine learning, you quickly hear something like “forget your econometric models, your GLMs, I can easily find a machine learning ‘model’ that can beat yours”. I am usually very sceptical, especially when I hear “easily” or “always“. I have no problem about the fact that I use old econometric models, but I had the feeling that things aren’t that easy. I can understand that we might have problems when we do have a lot of features (I am still working on that, I’ll get back to this point soon), but I have the feeling that I can still capture interactions, and non-linearities with standard econometric models as well as any machine learning algorithm.

Just to illustrate, consider the following ‘model

where is (just to illustrate)

> n <- 5000
> rtf <- function(x1, x2) { sin(x1+x2)/(x1+x2) }
> xgrid <- seq(1,6,length=31)
> ygrid <- seq(1,6,length=31)
> zgrid <- outer(xgrid,ygrid,rtf)
> persp(xgrid,ygrid,zgrid,theta=30, phi=30,
+ col="green", ticktype="detailed",shade=TRUE) # Multiple (smoothed) regression and portfolio exposure

Wednesday, in class, we’ve seen how to visualize a multiple regression model (with two continuous explanatory variables). Here, the goal is to predict the average cost of an insurance claim, using some covariates, e.g. the age of the driver, and the age of the car (recall that losses here are liability losses). The prediction obtained from a (standard) generalized linear model, with a log-link

> reg1=glm(cout~ageconducteur+agevehicule,data=base,family=Gamma(link="log"))

The code to visualize the predicted average cost is the following: first, we have to compute predictions for specific values,

> pred=function(x,y){
+ predict(reg,newdata=data.frame(ageconducteur=x,
+ agevehicule=y),type="response")

Then, we use this function to compute values on a grid,

> X=seq(20,80,by=5)
> Y=0:20
> Z=outer(X,Y,p)
> image(X,Y,Z,col=rev(heat.colors(101)))
+ levels=c(1400,1800,2000,2200,2400,2600,2800,3000,3200,4000,5000)) If we use factors, and not continuous variates (cut versions of those two variates),

> reg2=glm(cout~cut(ageconducteur,breaks=c(0,22,35,55,80,100))*
+               cut(agevehicule,breaks=c(-1,1,3,5,10,100)),
+ data=base,family=Gamma(link="log"))

(note that we consider the Cartesian product, so values are computed for each product of factors, age of the driver and age of the car) we obtain Obviously, we’re missing something here: the most expensive class with one model is the cheapeast for the other one! Of course, it might come from our classes (that were chosen a bit randomly), but it might be interesting to use nonlinear functions of the ages. So, let us use splines to smooth those two variables,

> reg3=glm(cout~bs(ageconducteur)+bs(agevehicule),data=base,
+ family=Gamma(link="log"))

With additive smoothed functions, we obtained a symmetric graph (due to the additive property) while with a bivariate spline

> library(mgcv)
+ reg4=gam(cout~s(ageconducteur,agevehicule),data=base,
+ family=Gamma(link="log")) (for some odd reasons, I could not use – easily – a bivariate spline in the Generalized Linear Model, but it did work considering a Generalized Additive Model – which is, by no means additive now). We can identify here some regions where the average cost can be extremely expensive… But, as mentioned wednesday, one should keep in mind that some parts of the square above are not reached. More precisely, the distribution of the portfolio, as a function of those two covariates is the following Thus, the proportion of young drivers driving a brand new car, and the proportion of old drivers driving a very old car is rather small… If the goal is to find niches, one should look at the prediction more carefully, but if the goal is to make that everyone gets an insurance cover, maybe we should allow that some drivers are under-priced (especially when are rare in the portfolio). And one should keep in mind that average costs are extremely sensitive to large losses, as discussed previously http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/3490 (and in class)

In the univariate case, I have migrated an old post, we I tried to reproduce (in R and in French) some standard graphs in the insurance industry: it is always interesting to visualize not only the prediction obtained from our models, but also the size of each class in the portfolio, The post is online here http://freakonometrics.hypotheses.org/1224

# Introduction aux modèles linéaires généralisés

J’ai un peu d’avance dans le cours. Je vais mettre en ligne les transparents pour la semaine prochaine (normalement), où nous aborderons la classe des modèles linéaires généralisés. Les transparents sont en ligne ici.

Je n’ai pas mis de section sur lesGeneralized Additive Models, on se contentera de la section sur le lissage évoquée à la fin des transparents sur la modélisation de la fréquence. Afin de légitimer les méthodes de lissage (sur l’âge de l’assuré en particulier), je renvoie vers un graphique produit il y a plusieurs années par un cabinet de conseil, qui notait que la forme de la fonction de lissage, liant l’âge à la fréquence est identique, dans tous les pays, Mais je pense que je ferais un billet dédié au lissage, dans la problématique de la tarification en assurance IARD.