# Additional Material on Flows, Networks and Geographic Visualization

For our last course on flows and networks, I have uploaded additional material. Slides are now online

A markdown-based webpage is now online, with all the codes.

# Traffic Flow of Kota Kinabalu (with R)

This morning, we had our first practicals on network flows, using  an example mentioned in some papers published by Noraini Abdullah and Ting Kien Hua, max flow min cut theorem to minimize traffic congestion in Kota Kinabalu and application of the Shortest Path and Maximum Flow with Bottleneck in Traffic Flow of Kota Kinabalu. From the roads mentioned in the articles, I did try my best to locate the nodes on a map,

```m=matrix(c(0,5.995910, 116.105520, 1,5.992737, 116.093718, 2,5.992066, 116.109883, 3,5.976947, 116.095760, 4,5.985766, 116.091580, 5,5.988940, 116.080112, 6,5.968318, 116.080764, 7,5.977454, 116.075460, 8,5.974226, 116.073604, 9,5.969651, 116.073753, 10,5.972341, 116.069270, 11,5.978818, 116.072880),3,12)```

we can be visualized below

```library(OpenStreetMap) map = openmap(c(lat= 6.000, lon= 116.06), c(lat= 5.960, lon= 116.12)) map=openproj(map) plot(map) points(t(m[3:2,]),col="black", pch=19, cex=3 ) text(t(m[3:2,]),c("s",1:10,"t"),col="white")``` If the source is realistic (up north), I do not feel very confortable with the location of the sink (on the west). But let’s pretend it’s find (to do the maths, at least).

To extract information about edge capacity, on that network use the following code that will extract the three tables from the paper

```library(devtools) install_github("ropensci/tabulizer") library(tabulizer) location <- 'http://www.jistm.com/PDF/JISTM-2017-04-06-02.pdf' out <- extract_tables(location)```

with Windows, it seems to be necessary to download another package first

```library(devtools) install_github("ropensci/tabulizerjars") install_github("ropensci/tabulizer") library(tabulizer) location <- 'http://www.jistm.com/PDF/JISTM-2017-04-06-02.pdf' out <- extract_tables(location)```

Now we can get out data frame with capacities

```B1=as.data.frame(out[]) B2=as.data.frame(out[]) E=data.frame(from=B1[3:20,"V3"], to=B1[3:20,"V4"]) E=E[-c(6,8),] capacity=as.character(B2\$V3[-1]) capacity="843" capacity="2913" E\$capacity=as.numeric(capacity)```

We can add those edges on our map (without the arrows to indicate the direction, it would be to heavy to read)

```plot(map) points(t(m[3:2,]),col="black", pch=19, cex=3 ) B=data.frame(i=as.character(c("s",paste("V",1:10,sep=""),"t")), x=m[3,],y=m[2,]) for(i in 1:nrow(E)){ i1=which(B\$i==as.character(E\$from[i])) i2=which(B\$i==as.character(E\$to[i])) segments(B[i1,"x"],B[i1,"y"],B[i2,"x"],B[i2,"y"],lwd=3) } text(t(m[3:2,]),c("s",1:10,"t"),col="white")``` To get the graph with capacities, an alternative is to use

```library(igraph) g=graph_from_data_frame(E) E(g)\$label=E\$capacity plot(g)``` but it does not respect geographical locations of nodes. It can actually be done using

`plot(g, layout=as.matrix(B[,c("x","y")]))` To get a better understanding of the capacities of the road, use

```plot(g, layout=as.matrix(B[,c("x","y")]), edge.width=E\$capacity/200)``` From that network with capacities, the goal is to determine maximum flow on that network, from the source to the sink. This can be done with R using

```> (m=max_flow(graph=g, source="s", target="t")) \$value  2571```

```\$flow  1191 1380 1422 1380 231 0 231 0 1149 1422 1149 0 0 1149 1422  1149```

Our maximum flow is here 2571, which is different from was is actually claimed both in the two papers  max flow min cut theorem to… and application of the Shortest Path… (“the maximum flow for the capacitated network with 12 nodes and 16 edges of the selected scope in this study was 2598 vehicles per hour“) where there are clearly typos since values in the table and on the graph are different. Here I did use the ones from the tables.

```E\$flux1=m\$flow E(g)\$label=E\$flux1 plot(g, layout=as.matrix(B[,c("x","y")]), edge.width=E\$flux1/200)``` That is nice, but rather odd. Actually, a much simpler flow can be considered, but the same global value ```E\$flux2=c(1422,1149,1422,1149,0,0,0,0, 1149,1422,1149,0,0,1149,1422,1149) E(g)\$label=E\$flux2 plot(g, layout=as.matrix(B[,c("x","y")]), edge.width=E\$flux2/200)``` Nice, isn’t it. It is actually possible to do exactly the same on another paper they have, on the same city, traffic congestion problem of road networks in Kota Kinabalu.

```location <- 'http://www.worldresearchlibrary.org/up_proc/pdf/999-150486366625-30.pdf' out <- extract_tables(location) dim(out[]) B1=as.data.frame(out[]) E=data.frame(from=B1[2:61,"V2"], to=B1[2:61,"V3"], capacity=B1[2:61,"V4"]) E\$capacity=as.numeric( as.character(E\$capacity)) library(igraph) g=graph_from_data_frame(E) m=max_flow(graph=g, source="S", target="T") E\$flux1=m\$flow E(g)\$label=E\$flux1 plot(g, edge.width=E\$flux1/200, edge.arrow.size=0.15)```

Here the value of the maximal flow is 4017, just as they found in the original paper # Nodal Regions and Flows

For practicals on networks and flows, we will use the R package flows dedicated to flows on networks

```library(flows) data(nav) myflows <- prepflows(mat = nav, i = "i", j = "j", fij = "fij") diag(myflows) <- 0```

Select flows that represent at least 20% of the sum of outgoing flows for each urban area.

`flowSel1 <- firstflows(mat = myflows/rowSums(myflows)*100, method = "xfirst",k = 20)`

Then select the dominant flows (incoming flows criterion)

```flowSel2 <- domflows(mat = myflows, w = colSums(myflows), k = 1) flowSel <- myflows * flowSel1 * flowSel2 inflows <- data.frame(id = colnames(myflows), w = colSums(myflows))```

and finally plot dominant flows map

```opar <- par(mar = c(0,0,2,0)) sp::plot(GE, col = "#cceae7", border = NA) plotMapDomFlows(mat = flowSel, spdf = UA, spdfid = "ID", w = inflows, wid = "id",wvar = "w", wcex = 0.05, add = TRUE,legend.flows.pos = "topright",legend.flows.title = "Nb. of commuters") title("Dominant Flows of Commuters")```

The code to get the background map is based on the GE object, defined in that package. To go further on dominant flows read  Nystuen & Dacey (1961)  We will discuss in the last course, next week  two extensions that were not mentioned in the course. The first one is about congestion models. The second one is a nice application of flow to discuss sports issues in NBA (or NHL).

# Traffic Flow of Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia) For the second practicals of our course on networks and flows, we will study traffic flow of Kota Kinabalu (Malaysia), following several papers published by Noraini Abdullah and Ting Kien Hua, such as max flow min cut theorem to minimize traffic congestion in Kota Kinabalu, traffic congestion problem of road networks in Kota Kinabalu and application of the Shortest Path and Maximum Flow with Bottleneck in Traffic Flow of Kota Kinabalu. 