Tag Archives: Ewen

Growth, Degrowth: What Are We Talking About?

This little post has been written with Ewen Gallic,

End of the world, end of the month – same fight!” can often be seen on signs during various demonstrations, in France, but also as the title of the inaugural lesson at the Collège de France by economist Christian Gollier, reminding us that climate change and the economy are facing off in a battle that promises to be bloody. “Growth” seems to be a key element in this battle, but this battle will likely remain in vain as long as this term is not clearly discussed, allowing us to leave the often dogmatic trenches.
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Croissance, décroissance, de quoi parle-t-on ?

Ce petit billet a été coécrit avec Ewen Gallic,

« Fin du monde, fin du mois, même combat, » peut-on lire régulièrement sur des pancartes et les banderoles, lors de diverses manifestations, mais aussi comme titre de leçon inaugurale au Collège de France de l’économiste Christian Gollier, rappelant que le changement climatique et l’économie se font face dans un combat qui s’annonce sanglant. La “croissance” semble être un élément clé dans ce combat, mais ce dernier restera probablement vain tant que ce terme ne serra pas clairement discuté, permettant de quitter des tranchées souvent dogmatiques.
Continue reading Croissance, décroissance, de quoi parle-t-on ?

Geospatial Disparities: A Case Study on Real Estate Prices in Paris

Our paper, Geospatial Disparities: A Case Study on Real Estate Prices in Paris, and Agathe Fernandes Machado, François Hu, Philipp Ratz and Ewen Gallic, is now online on ArXiv,

Driven by an increasing prevalence of trackers, ever more IoT sensors, and the declining cost of computing power, geospatial information has come to play a pivotal role in contemporary predictive models. While enhancing prognostic performance, geospatial data also has the potential to perpetuate many historical socio-economic patterns, raising concerns about a resurgence of biases and exclusionary practices, with their disproportionate impacts on society. Addressing this, our paper emphasizes the crucial need to identify and rectify such biases and calibration errors in predictive models, particularly as algorithms become more intricate and less interpretable. The increasing granularity of geospatial information further introduces ethical concerns, as choosing different geographical scales may exacerbate disparities akin to redlining and exclusionary zoning. To address these issues, we propose a toolkit for identifying and mitigating biases arising from geospatial data. Extending classical fairness definitions, we incorporate an ordinal regression case with spatial attributes, deviating from the binary classification focus. This extension allows us to gauge disparities stemming from data aggregation levels and advocates for a less interfering correction approach. Illustrating our methodology using a Parisian real estate dataset, we showcase practical applications and scrutinize the implications of choosing geographical aggregation levels for fairness and calibration measures.

Exposé au séminaire de statistique (StatQAM)

Tomorrow, Ewen Gallic will present some recent work at the StatQAM statistical seminar, on calibration, with Agathe Fernandes Machado, François Hu, and Emmanuel Flachaire. It will substantially be based on our recent paper From Uncertainty to Precision: Enhancing Binary Classifier Performance through Calibration

The assessment of binary classifier performance traditionally centers on discriminative ability using metrics, such as accuracy. However, these metrics often disregard the model’s inherent uncertainty, especially when dealing with sensitive decision-making domains, such as finance or healthcare. Given that model-predicted scores are commonly seen as event probabilities, calibration is crucial for accurate interpretation. In our study, we analyze the sensitivity of various calibration measures to score distortions and introduce a refined metric, the Local Calibration Score. Comparing recalibration methods, we advocate for local regressions, emphasizing their dual role as effective recalibration tools and facilitators of smoother visualizations. We apply these findings in a real-world scenario using Random Forest classifier and regressor to predict credit default while simultaneously measuring calibration during performance optimization.

To illustrate, consider predictions about the gender of the person on the picture, including probabilities (confidence), obtained from https://www.picpurify.com/demo-face-gender-age.html, with fake pictures, from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/11/21/science/artificial-intelligence-fake-people-faces.html.

From Uncertainty to Precision: Enhancing Binary Classifier Performance through Calibration

Our paper From Uncertainty to Precision: Enhancing Binary Classifier Performance through Calibration, written with Agathe Fernandes Machadoa, Emmanuel Flachaire, Ewen Gallic and François Hu is now online on ArXiv,

The assessment of binary classifier performance traditionally centers on discriminative ability using metrics, such as accuracy. However, these metrics often disregard the model’s inherent uncertainty, especially when dealing with sensitive decision-making domains, such as finance or healthcare. Given that model-predicted scores are commonly seen as event probabilities, calibration is crucial for accurate interpretation. In our study, we analyze the sensitivity of various calibration measures to score distortions and introduce a refined metric, the Local Calibration Score. Comparing recalibration methods, we advocate for local regressions, emphasizing their dual role as effective recalibration tools and facilitators of smoother visualizations. We apply these findings in a real-world scenario using Random Forest classifier and regressor to predict credit default while simultaneously measuring calibration during performance optimization.

Modeling Joint Lives within Families

With Olivier Cabrignac and Ewen Gallic, we recently uploaded a research paper, entitled “Modeling Joint Lives within Families

Family history is usually seen as a significant factor insurance companies look at when applying for a life insurance policy. Where it is used, family history of cardiovascular diseases, death by cancer, or family history of high blood pressure and diabetes could result in higher premiums or no coverage at all. In this article, we use massive (historical) data to study dependencies between life length within families. If joint life contracts (between a husband and a wife) have been long studied in actuarial literature, little is known about child and parents dependencies. We illustrate those dependencies using 19th century family trees in France, and quantify implications in annuities computations. For parents and children, we observe a modest but significant positive association between life lengths. It yields different estimates for remaining life expectancy, present values of annuities, or whole life insurance guarantee, given information about the parents (such as the number of parents alive). A similar but weaker pattern is observed when using information on grandparents.

The paper is online on https://arxiv.org/abs/2006.08446.

Insurance data science : Pictures

At the Summer School of the Swiss Association of Actuaries, in Lausanne, following the part of Jean-Philippe Boucher (UQAM) on telematic data, I will start talking about pictures this Wednesday. Slides are available online

Ewen Gallic (AMSE) will present a tutorial on satellite pictures, and a simple classification problem, related to Alzeimher detection.

We will try to identify what is on the following pictures, starting with the car

(we will see that the car is indeed identified)

We will also discuss previous pictures from the summer school