# An Update on Boosting with Splines

In my previous post, An Attempt to Understand Boosting Algorithm(s), I was puzzled by the boosting convergence when I was using some spline functions (more specifically linear by parts and continuous regression functions). I was using

> library(splines)
> fit=lm(y~bs(x,degree=1,df=3),data=df)

The problem with that spline function is that knots seem to be fixed. The iterative boosting algorithm is

• start with some regression model $\boldsymbol{y}_1=h_1(\boldsymbol{x})$
• compute the residuals, including some shrinkage parameter,$\boldsymbol{\varepsilon}_{1}=\boldsymbol{y}-\nu_1 h_1(\boldsymbol{x})$

then the strategy is to model those residuals

• at step $j$, consider regression $\boldsymbol{\varepsilon}_j=h_j(\boldsymbol{x})$
• update the residuals $\boldsymbol{\varepsilon}_{j+1}=\boldsymbol{\varepsilon}_j-\nu_j h_j(\boldsymbol{x})$

and to loop. Then set

$\widehat{\boldsymbol{y}}=\sum_{j=1}^M \nu_j\boldsymbol{\varepsilon}_{j}=\sum_{j=1}^M \nu_jh_j(\boldsymbol{x})$

I thought that boosting would work well if at step $j$, it was possible to change the knots. But the output

was quite disappointing: boosting does not improve the prediction here. And it looks like knots don’t change. Actually, if we select the ‘best‘ knots, the output is much better. The dataset is still

> n=300
> set.seed(1)
> u=sort(runif(n)*2*pi)
> y=sin(u)+rnorm(n)/4
> df=data.frame(x=u,y=y)

For an optimal choice of knot locations, we can use

> library(freeknotsplines)
> xy.freekt=freelsgen(df$x, df$y, degree = 1,
+ numknot = 2, 555)

The code of the previous post can simply be updated

> v=.05
> library(splines)
> xy.freekt=freelsgen(df$x, df$y, degree = 1,
+ numknot = 2, 555)
> fit=lm(y~bs(x,degree=1,knots=
+ xy.freekt@optknot),data=df)
> yp=predict(fit,newdata=df)
> df$yr=df$y - v*yp
> YP=v*yp
>  for(t in 1:200){
+    xy.freekt=freelsgen(df$x, df$yr, degree = 1,
+    numknot = 2, 555)
+ fit=lm(yr~bs(x,degree=1,knots=
+     xy.freekt@optknot),data=df)
+    yp=predict(fit,newdata=df)
+    df$yr=df$yr - v*yp
+    YP=cbind(YP,v*yp)
+  }
>  nd=data.frame(x=seq(0,2*pi,by=.01))
>  viz=function(M){
+    if(M==1)  y=YP[,1]
+    if(M>1)   y=apply(YP[,1:M],1,sum)
+    plot(df$x,df$y,ylab="",xlab="")
+    lines(df$x,y,type="l",col="red",lwd=3) + fit=lm(y~bs(x,degree=1,df=3),data=df) + yp=predict(fit,newdata=nd) + lines(nd$x,yp,type="l",col="blue",lwd=3)
+    lines(nd$x,sin(nd$x),lty=2)}

>  viz(100)

I like that graph. I had the intuition that using (simple) splines would be possible, and indeed, we get a very smooth prediction.